Outbreak and Current Disease Status Information

PRO/AH/EDR> Malaria, avian - USA: (MI) songbirds, climate change

ProMED Mail Reports - 1 hour 53 min ago
Malaria -- United States
The blood parasites that infect songbirds with avian malaria are far more diverse in Southwest Michigan than scientists knew, raising troubling questions about the spread of the disease and its impact on dozens of species of birds.
"Parasitism is a widely occurring interaction that drives ecological and evolutionary processes and has profound impacts on biological systems," according to a newly published study by scientists at Western Michigan University.
And climate change could worsen

PRO/AH/EDR> E. coli EHEC - USA (06): O157, romaine lettuce

ProMED Mail Reports - 5 hours 33 min ago
E. coli -- United States
Information collected to date indicates that romaine lettuce from the Yuma, Arizona growing region could be contaminated with _E. coli_ O157:H7 and could make people sick. At this time, no common grower, supplier, distributor, or brand has been identified.
Advice to Consumers:
Do not buy or eat romaine lettuce at a grocery store or restaurant unless you can confirm it is not from the Yuma, Arizona, growing region.
Unless the source of the product is known, consumers anywhere in the USA

PRO/AH/EDR> Murray Valley encephalitis - Australia: (NT)

ProMED Mail Reports - 7 hours 23 min ago
Murray Valley encephalitis -- Australia
Top End residents and visitors are urged to cover up against mosquitoes following a recent case of Murray Valley encephalitis [MVE] acquired in a remote Arnhem Land community.
"February to July marks the main risk period for the potentially fatal MVE, with the carrier being the common banded mosquito, _Culex annulirostris_," Vicki Krause, director Centre for Disease Control said.
Virus testing in sentinel chickens has indicated MVE [virus] activity in Katherine in January [2018] and

PRO/AH/EDR> Yellow fever - WHO, risk of spread

ProMED Mail Reports - 7 hours 24 min ago
Yellow Fever -- Worldwide/Unknown
Shannon E Brent, Alexander Watts, Martin Cetron, Matthew German, Moritz UG Kraemer,et al.
International travel and the urban spread of yellow fever.
Objective: To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world.
Methods: We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable

PRO/AH/EDR> Tularemia - Switzerland: 2017

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 16:44
Tularemia -- Switzerland
Rodent plague, a bacterial infection, (also called rabbit fever) is spreading among people in Switzerland. A growing number of incidents with tick bites has been recorded over the past few years. The Federal Health Office counted 130 confirmed cases of tularemia in 2017, according to Swiss public radio, SRF. This is 4 times more than usual.
The authorities called on doctors to report all such cases. A decision on coordinated campaign measures will be taken later this year [2018]. Experts

PRO/EDR> Norovirus - Japan: contaminated seaweed

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 14:25
Norovirus -- Japan
Outbreak investigators in Japan have identified contamination in a seaweed production plant as the cause of 7 foodborne illness outbreaks that sickened almost 2100 people in 2017.
The 7 foodborne norovirus outbreaks were all attributable to dried, shredded seaweed called nori, according to a report from researchers in Japan and published in recent days by the U.S. Centers for Disease control and Prevention.
The outbreaks hit 4 remote areas as well as Tokyo. Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17

PRO/AH/EDR> Pacific oyster mortality syndrome - Australia: (SA)

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 13:36
Other Animal Disease -- Australia
The federal government insists it is on top of Australia's biosecurity after a "very concerning" outbreak of oyster disease became the latest issue to threaten produce.
Pacific oyster mortality syndrome [POMS] was detected in South Australia last week [week of 26 Feb 2018], joining fruit fly in Tasmania as a recent issue to hit the agriculture sector.
Assistant Agriculture Minister Anne Ruston said the government had acted quickly to protect markets.
"Australia has a great reputation

PRO/AH/EDR> Chronic wasting disease, cervid - USA (06): (MO,WI)

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 12:47
Chronic Wasting Disease -- United States
The Missouri Department of Conservation [MDC] announces new cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) have been found in Perry (1) and Ste Genevieve (6) counties. 4 of these samples were harvested by hunters during the 2017 fall firearms season. 3 of these positives were taken during post season efforts in Ste Genevieve county by MDC staff and partner landowners to cull additional deer within the area of recent CWD cases. These new local cases are a part of the 33 new cases identified across the

PRO/AH/EDR> Tick-borne relapsing fever - USA: (TX) cave workers, 2017

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 12:20
Tick-borne disease -- United States
Campbell SB, et al. Evaluating the risk of tickborne relapsing fever among occupational cavers -- Austin, TX, 2017. Presented at: Epidemic Intelligence Service conference; 16-19 Apr 2018; Atlanta.
[Byline: Gerard Gallagher]
Communicated by:

[Relapsing fever is a bacterial infection caused by certain species of the spirochete _Borrelia_. These organisms are able to periodically change their surface protein molecules to evade the host's immune response, thus causing a

PRO/AH/EDR> Chikungunya (04): Americas, Africa, Asia, research

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 10:14
Chikungunya -- Ecuador
Chikungunya virus caused an epidemic on Curaçao in 2014-2015. Infants are highly at risk for clinical syndromes as sepsis-like illness and central nervous system disease. Clinical recognition is important if laboratory tests, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] are not available. The World Health Organization created criteria for identification of probable chikungunya virus. None of the studied infants met these criteria. We

PRO/PL> Citrus canker - Australia: (NT)

ProMED Mail Reports - Fri, 04/20/2018 - 10:05
Other Plant Disease -- Australia
A contagious disease that destroyed more than half a million citrus trees in Queensland [in 2004; ProMED-mail post http://promedmail.org/post/20040712.1865] has been discovered in Darwin. Citrus canker has not been detected in the Northern Territory [NT] since the early 1990s.

The NT Department of Primary Industry and Resources said it received a report of suspected citrus canker symptoms in 2 retail nurseries, and that the plants were removed and an investigation launched.

PRO/PL> White rot, garlic - China: (SD)

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 20:40
Other Plant Disease -- China
White Garlic Rot has occurred in different plantings in Shandong province, [causing] fear that over half of new garlic crops will be affected. The weather in recent weeks has been relatively warm and humid, ideal conditions for the rot to spread.
"Consequences for this year's [2018] harvest can be grave. Farmers could lose up to half or even more of their total garlic crop. If a plant is affected with the rot, the plant will not sprout," says Steven Zhou of export company Bestway Group.

PRO/AH/EDR> Equine herpesvirus - North America (14): (CA, CO) equine

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 20:39
Equine Herpes Virus -- United States
A 17-year-old thoroughbred gelding from an Orange Country, California, facility has been diagnosed with equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, the neurologic form of equine herpesvirus-1 [EHV-1]) after developing neurologic signs of disease, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) reported [Fri 13 Apr 2018]. "The gelding has been isolated and placed under quarantine," the CDFA's statement said. "Exposed horses will be monitored for clinical signs and temperatures will be

PRO/AH/EDR> Monkeypox - Africa (08): Liberia, clarification

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 20:34
Monkeypox -- Liberia
The Ministry of Health (MoH) received confirmed laboratory report from the National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) of 2 cases of monkeypox from Maryland and Rivercess Counties in November [2017]. The confirmatory tests were conducted by the Center for Disease, Prevention and Control (CDC), Atlanta, USA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in mid-2017, no death was reported.
Since January 2018, Liberia has recorded one suspected case and awaits result from CDC; no confirmed and

Lassa Fever – Nigeria

WHO Disease Outbreaks news - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 20:10
From 1 January through 15 April 2018, 1849 suspected cases have been reported from 21 states (Abia, Adamawa, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Federal Capital Territory, Gombe, Imo, Kaduna, Kogi, Lagos, Nasarawa, Ondo, Osun, Plateau, Rivers, and Taraba). Of these, 413 patients were confirmed with Lassa fever, nine were classified as probable 1422 tested negative and were classified as non-cases and for the five remaining suspect cases laboratory results are pending. Among the 413 confirmed and the nine probable Lassa fever cases, 114 deaths were reported (case fatality rate for confirmed cases is 25.4% and for confirmed and probable cases combined is 27%).

PRO/EDR> Dengue/DHF update (08): Americas, research, observations

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 15:11
Dengue -- Worldwide/Unknown
Cases by Country / Week updated / Serotype / Total / Conf. / Severe
North America
USA / 14 [week ending 6 Apr 2018] / D? / 28 / 28 / 0
Central America and Mexico
Belize / 13 [week ending 30 Mar 2018] / D? / 294 / 9 / 0
Costa Rica / 10 [week ending 9 Mar 2018] / D? / 373 / 0 / 0
El Salvador / 13 [week ending 30 Mar 2018] / D? / 923 / 31 / 0
Honduras / 13 [week ending 30 Mar 2018] / D? / 1380 / 0 / 70
Mexico / 14 [week ending 6 Apr 2018] / D 1,2,3 / 4863/ 283 / 34
Nicaragua / 14

PRO/EDR> Influenza (14): WHO global update

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:35
Influenza -- Worldwide/Unknown
Information in this report is categorized by influenza transmission zones, which are geographical groups of countries, areas, or territories with similar influenza transmission patterns.
Influenza activity decreased in most of the countries in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, with exception of Eastern Europe where activity continued to increase. In the temperate zone of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained at inter-seasonal levels. Worldwide,

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax - China: (NX) livestock, human

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:25
Anthrax -- China
At least 3 human anthrax cases have been reported in north-central China, including one fatality, according to a RFA report (computer translated).The outbreak of cutaneous anthrax is reported in 2 towns of Zhongwei City, Ningxia region where the patients had consumed tainted cow and mutton. The 2 surviving patients are currently hospitalized and stable.
Upon discovery of the cases, authorities quarantined the area and closed the livestock market.
Anthrax is a serious infectious disease

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (68): Togo (MA) poultry, HPAI H5N1, OIE

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 14:24
Avian Influenza H5N1 -- Togo
Information received on [and dated] 18 Apr 2018 from Dr Batawui Komla Batasse, Director of [Livestock and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Breeding and Fisheries], Lome, Togo
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 27 Mar 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 16 Apr 2018
Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 24 Oct 2017
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: Highly

PRO/EDR> Measles update (25): Asia, Pacific, Africa, Middle East, Europe, USA

ProMED Mail Reports - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 10:58
Measles -- China
A pilot and a flight attendant working for low-cost carrier Tigerair Taiwan on [Sun 15 Apr 2018] tested positive for measles, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said, adding that it is investigating whether the infections are associated with recent cluster cases.
The 2 had come in contact with 2 other Tigerair flight attendants who had contracted the disease earlier this month [April 2018], the CDC said.
The cluster cases were traced to a Taiwanese man who was infected with measles
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