Cervical Cancer Screening Service Uptake and Associated Factors among Women in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia 2019

  • Public health surveillance
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Cervical cancer is fourth most frequent cancer, representing 6.6% of all female cancers, and majority occur in low and middle-income countries. Incidence and mortality from cervical cancer can be prevented by precancerous screening. Screening service uptake in developing countries is generally low. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine uptake of cervical cancer screening service and associated factors among women in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

The study was conducted in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia using community based cross-sectional analytic study from July-August, 2019 among women aged 30-49. A total of 401 women were sampled and multistage sampling technique was applied to select participants, with cases receiving cervical cancer screening and controls remaining unscreened. Data was collected by pretested and structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS. Bivariate and Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with service uptake.

Among 387 study participants, only 39 (10.1%) were screened for cervical cancer. Age between 35–39 (AOR= 4.3: 95% CI=1.2-15) and 40-44 (AOR=6.1; 95% CI=1.3-26.8), history of multiple sexual partners (AOR=4; 95% CI=1.4-11.2), good knowledge about cervical cancer (AOR=3.6; 95% CI=1.1-12.2), being sero-reactive for HIV (AOR= 5.9; 95% CI=1.2-27.7), and ever recommended by health professionals for screening (AOR= 3.7; 95% CI=1.4-9.7) were significantly associated with screening service uptake. Absence of symptoms, little understanding about cervical cancer and its screening were major barriers for screening uptake.

The uptake of screening service is very low. Women aged 35-44, history of multiple sexual partner, HIV infection, good knowledge about cervical cancer and receiving a screening recommendation were independent predictors of screening uptake. Awareness creation about screening and cervical cancer, with special attention to women who are HIV negative, have one life time sexual partner, and either below 35 years of age or above 45 years of age should be strengthened.

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