Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Outbreak in Anzá, Antioquia, Colombia, 2021

  • Vector-borne
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Background: The municipality of Anzá reported an increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in 2021, configuring a possible outbreak situation, with an incidence of 167.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The objective was to confirm the presence of an outbreak of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Anzá.
Methods: This was a 2-phase outbreak study: description of the cases reported in the Public Health Surveillance System between 2020 and epidemiological week 21 of 2021, with georeferencing, active community and institutional search, and entomological study. In the second phase, the case-control study was carried out, with 2 controls per case. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and frequency distribution were calculated, the epidemic curve was elaborated, the risk factors were determined, and the OR (95% CI) were analyzed.
Results: A total of 9 confirmed cases were detected; 27 surveys were done (9 cases and 18 controls) in 2 neighborhoods and 1 village. A total of 77.8% (7) of cases occurred in men, 44.4% (4) in people between 21–31 years old. In the active community search, 4 cases were detected and in the institutional search, 8 possible cases without confirmed diagnosis were detected. The vectors Lutzomyia yuilli yuilli and Lutzomyia gomezi were identified in the area. Having relatives with cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the last year was evidenced as a risk (OR: 10.0; 95% CI=1.55-64.2).
Conclusions: An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis was confirmed in Anzá. An increased risk was determined in those who lived with family members affected by the disease in the last year. Similar sanitary and environmental conditions were evidenced in the urban and rural area. It is necessary to strengthen timely prevention and diagnosis measures.

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