Dog Ecology, Dog Bite Incidence and Vaccination Coverage, Survey Bondo, Siaya County, Kenya, December 2016

  • Zoonotic
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Background: Dog mediated rabies account for >90% of all human rabies cases globally. Mass dog vaccination reaching 70% of the population is recommended as the most effective method of human rabies control. In 2014, Kenya launched a rabies elimination strategy with mass dog vaccination as the main strategy. As a pilot county, Siaya carried out mass dog vaccinations in December 13-23, 2016. We conducted household (HH) survey to assess dog ecology, dog ownership practices, dog bite incidence and estimate vaccination coverage.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted 24-48 hours post vaccination in which 28/120 (23%) vaccination sites were randomly selected. Systematic random sampling was used to select HHs for survey. The survey targeted a total of 60 households/day for seven days giving a minimum sample size of 420 HHs. Questionnaire was administered to both dog owning (DOHHs) and non-dog owning (NDHHs) HH heads and collected, information on dog ecology, dog management practices and dog bite incidence. Data management and analysis was done using MS Excel and descriptive statistics were calculated.
Results: Among the 503 HHs included in the study, 407 (81%) were DOHHs with 1026 dogs (565 male and 461 females) giving female: male ratio of 1:1.2 and human: dog ratio of 3:1. Median number of dogs in DOHHs was 2 dogs (range: 1-19 dogs). A total of 112 (24%) females whelped an average of 3 puppies in past year. Among DOHHs, 363 (89%) practiced partial or no confinement. A total of 18 dog bites were reported in past year giving an incidence of 611 dog bites/100,000/year. Estimated dog vaccination coverage was 55.9%.
Conclusion: The high population and dog turn-over rates coupled with poor dog management practices, high dog bite incidence above national average and sub-optimal dog vaccination coverage impacts on rabies elimination strategy. Sustained dog vaccination is recommended for elimination of rabies.

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