Epidemiological Characteristics of human sporotrichosis - João Pessoa, Brazil, 2019

  • Zoonotic
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Sporotrichosis is a zoonosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix spp. In Brazil, transmission occurs mainly with felines. The observed complications are frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the patients identified in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Goiás and São Paulo, complications were observed in 40% of them and death in 6% in the period from 1992 to 2015. In João Pessoa-PB, the first patients appeared at the end of 2017. In this perspective, a field epidemiology study was started, whose scope was to know the epidemiological situation of human Sporotrichosis in the city of João Pessoa-Paraíba, integrating strategies of active search of sporotrichosis in humans and felines and to propose control measures.

Retrospective, exploratory study, whose instrument for epidemiological field investigation was elaborated using Epi Info software and applied for review of medical records, laboratory test records and interviews with individuals who sought health services from January 2018 to May 2019, according to the following case definition: patient with lesion or multiple cutaneous lesions in lymphatic vessel pathways with epidemiological history of contact with diseased cat or manipulation of organic matter prior to the appearance of lesions. Data were compiled and analyzed in Epi Info.

A total of 1,360 records were reviewed, resulting in 472 suspects, of which 402 (85.2%) were confirmed by culture for fungi with Sporothrix spp identification, 63% were women, and the most affected age group was 30 to 39 years with 16.4%. Only 1% report not having had contact with animal, and 54% report contact with sick animal. There were no hospitalizations for complications, but 13% presented atypical forms such as ocular.

Knowledge of the magnitude and transcendence of human sporotrichosis, with consequent identification of pockets of transmission, has made Epidemiological and Environmental Surveillance, along with other institutional spaces for collaboration, instituted outpatient and laboratory reference, with a view to expanding to other health services. and subsequent institution of compulsory municipal notification of suspected cases of human sporotrichosis, with a view to monitoring the dynamics of the disease in the territory.

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