Fatalities Associated with Road Traffic Accidents in Kaduna State – Nigeria, 2012-2018

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Globally, road traffic accidents (RTAs) account for 20-50 million injuries annually with a loss of about 1.5 million lives. Developing countries including Nigeria account for over 85% of these fatalities. RTAs which are unintended and preventable remain a threat to public health. The increasing level of RTAs in Kaduna State and consequent injuries and deaths strengthened the case for its regular analysis. We analyzed surveillance data to describe the pattern of injuries among fatal and non-fatal victims of RTAs.
We conducted a retrospective review of Road Traffic Crash reports in Kaduna State from 2012-2018. Data on recorded cases of RTAs were extracted from the Federal Road Safety Commission records. We collected information on socio-demographics, RTA occurrence, morbidities, and mortalities. We analyzed data using descriptive statistics and trend analysis.
Incidence of injuries was 82.73 per 100,000 populations and mortality was 17.45 per 100,000 populations. The pro- portion of injured among people involved in RTA was 6,827/13,353 (51.1%). Case fatality among injured individuals was 1,440/6,827 (21.1%) during the years under review. Mortalities among injured males and females were 20.9% and 21.6% respectively. The trend of death among injured cases of RTAs in Kaduna State was significantly on the increase (X2trend = 13.6; P-Value = 0.00023). Commercial and private vehicles accounted for 1,456/2,494 (58.4%) and 930/2,494 (37.3%) respectively. Human factors 1,738/2,662 (65.3%) were the leading cause of RTAs followed by me- chanical factors 888/2,662 (33.4%).
RTAs remain a significant cause of death in Kaduna State requiring holistic attention and approach towards curbing its occurrence. There is a need to establish interventions to curb RTAs and reduce reckless driving. We recommend that public awareness campaigns on prevention strategies should be targeted at vulnerable road users and com- mercial vehicle owners who contributed to the highest burden of RTAs.

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