Immunization Coverage and Factors Associated with the Non-Vaccination of children aged 12 to 23 months - Goulfey Health district, Far North region Cameroon 2018

  • Vaccine preventable diseases
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Background:
Cameroon has set targets for immunization coverage for at least 90% for Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Between 2014 and 2016 only the Goulfey health district (HD) did not meet this target in the Far North region. We assessed the immunization coverage and identified causes for non-vaccination.
Methods:
We conducted a cross sectional study in Goulfey HD in February 2018. We administered a questionnaire to parents of 12-23 months old children, using WHO cluster survey design. Parents were asked about recommended vaccines received by their children before age of one year, reasons for non-vaccination and their perception of vaccination. Health personnel involved in vaccination were interviewed through focus groups. Evidence of vaccination was considered through vaccination card or parental declaration. Immunization coverage was determined using Penta 3 antigen, a tracker antigen for EPI. We used multivariate analysis and calculated Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval.
Results:
Information’s on 629 children were collected in 30 villages. Immunization coverage was 86.5% (95%CI: 83.6-89.0) according to presentation of vaccination card and parents declaration. Of the 21.5% (103/629) with cards 99.03% (102/103) were vaccinated. Among mothers, 86.5% (534/617) found vaccination important. About 88.8% (557/627) were aware of immunization planning and 97.6% (535/548) found the vaccination planning right. Reasons associated with non-vaccination were maternal age ≥30years (OR=6.47, CI: 2.19-19.07); distance to the health facility ˃5km (OR=0.24, CI: 0.09-0.64), and child’s residence with a non-biological parent (OR=0.12, CI: 0.06-0.27). According to health personnel, reasons of non-vaccination were parent’s fear of adverse events following immunization and poverty
Conclusion
Although vaccination is recognized as important, age and distance impact on vaccine coverage in Goulfey. Getting emphasize on the adhesion of population close to the health facility might provide improvement. Further research is needed to know the magnitude of parent’s fears of vaccine adverse side effects as reported by the health staff.

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