Investigation of a case of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Senegal, March 2022

  • Vector-borne
  • Zoonotic
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Senegal has been recording cases of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever since 2015. Following the confirmation by the laboratory of the Pasteur Institute of Dakar of a case of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, an investigation team was deployed in the health district of Koumpemtoum, Eastern Sénégal, from 15 to 24 March 2022 to describe the epidemiological situation in order to estimate the risk of spread and to implement control measures.

We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey using a viral hemorrhagic fever case investigation form. The study population consisted of anyone presenting with a fever accompanied by at least 2 of the following symptoms: pain, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations. An active search for suspected cases was conducted. Blood samples were taken from the suspected cases found. Simultaneously, entomological and animal surveys was conducted. The collected data were analyzed with EPIINFO7. The risk of spread to persons was assessed using the WHO risk assessment matrix. We calculated proportions.

A total of 59 people met the case definition. Only one positive case was diagnosed out of the 59 human specimens. The identified exposures were animal husbandry (35.6%); presence of sick animals (1.7%) and contact with sick animals (1.7%). A positive IGM serology was found in a ruminant at the case's home. Eight species of ticks were identified with the genus Hyalomma as the main vector. Following the WHO guidance, he risk of spread was classified as moderate.

One human and one animal case of Crimean Congo fever were found. The main factors we identified were: occupation as an animal breeder; presence of infected animals and contact with sick animals in the presence of the predominant vector. We recommend reinforcing human and animal surveillance, raising awareness in this district.

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