Measles outbreak in Jeddah city, KSA 2017-2018: Matched Case-Control Study

  • Vaccine preventable diseases
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Background:
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can lead to serious complications and even death. Some districts of Jeddah constantly reported low or unknown measles vaccination rates. We investigated a measles outbreak in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between October 5, 2017 to March 5, 2018. We sought to describe the scope of the outbreak and identify possible risk factors.

Methods:
We conducted a case control study. We defined cases as any measles case laboratory confirmed by positive ELISA IgM test. We randomly selected controls from ill individuals who tested negative for measles and matched by neighborhood. We used surveillance data from the measles program for Jeddah region and directly interviewed cases or parents of cases using the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health measles questionnaire. Variables included demographics, vaccination history, contact history and clinical data. We used SPSS ver. 23 for statistical analysis.

Results:
A total of 222 participants responded: 111 were cases. Cases were mostly under 1 year of age (31%), and (22%) were 1-5 years. Cases were geographically located in four districts in southern Jeddah represented (38%) of cases, (60%) of them were non-Saudis. These districts are mostly slums, with lower socioeconomic status residents. We found significant differences regarding vaccination status between cases (97% unvaccinated) and controls (35% unvaccinated) (P value< 0.01 , OR=0.015, 95%CI=0.004-0.051).

Conclusion:
The main reason for this outbreak was non-vaccination. We recommend further studying of reasons for not taking the vaccine especially in southern of Jeddah.

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