Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients in Muscat Governorate, Oman, 2017-2020

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) are global public health concern and leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The co-infection is known to complicate TB control and outcomes. However, there is no national study regarding the prevalence of DM among TB patients in Oman. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of DM and its associated factors among TB patients in the Muscat governorate, Oman.

An analytical cross-sectional study using secondary data from the electronic system of the Ministry of Health (Al-Shifa 3+). It includes all adult TB patients in Muscat governorate, from 2017-2020. Sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics and comorbidities of TB patients were collected. SPSS with 95% CI and p-value ≤ 0.05 was used for statistical analysis.

Of 426 TB cases, the prevalence of DM was 27%. The associated factors of DM were; age group 40-49 years (OR=9.08, CI:4.16-19.84) and those ≥55 years (OR=11.35, CI: 5.19-24.82), male (OR=2.35, CI: 1.45-3.81), being married (OR=13.18, CI: 4.72-36.84), being employed (OR=2.30, CI: 1.19-4.47), be of Bangladeshi (OR=7.08, CI: 2.5-20.12) or Indian (OR=6.14, CI: 2.40-15.70) nationality. The absence of BCG scar (OR=2.06, CI: 1.19-3.56), death (OR=7.08, CI: 1.26 -7.82) and cured after TB treatment (OR=3.02, CI 1.71-5.31) showed significant association. Also, smoking (OR=2.93, CI: 1.81-4.76), drinking alcohol (OR=1.79, CI: 1.10-2.91), hypertension (OR=10.45, CI: 5.29-20.64), heart disease (OR=8.50, CI: 1.69-42.77) and renal disease (OR=4.84, CI: 1.71-13.64) contributed to the study's comorbidities. Old age (aOR=2.3, CI: 1.72-3.06) and hypertension (aOR=5.21, CI: 2.288-11.87) were found to be predictors of DM among TB patients.

The prevalence of DM among TB patients in Muscat governorate, Oman is high. Integrated systematic bidirectional TB-DM screening is needed. Furthermore, special attention is required for associated factors when managing these comorbidities.

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