Prevalence and Factors Associated with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Children in Sokoto – Nigeria, 2016

  • Mental health
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Background: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental disorder affecting children and adolescents. Children with ADHD show significant under-achievement, poor academic performance and educational problems when compared with their peers. They also have high frequency of learning disability and are more likely to repeat grade and require special education. We determined the prevalence of ADHD and its associated factors among primary school children in Sokoto, north-western Nigeria.
Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on 1,479 school children aged 5-17 years selected using multi-stage sampling technique. We used Vanderbilt ADHD rating scale to screen children for ADHD symptoms. Clinical interview was conducted on parent of pupils with symptoms. Physical examination and serum lead level was checked amongst pupils that met the symptom criteria for ADHD. Univariate analysis was expressed as frequencies, percentages and means. Chi-square test were performed to test for association between categorical variables.
Results: Of the 1,479 study participants 751 (50.8%) were males. Mean age was 9.16±2.34 years. The prevalence of ADHD was 1.1% (95% CI 0.7-1.8). The prevalence was higher in males (1.3%) than in females (1.0%) but this difference was not statistically significant (OR= 1.39; 95% CI 0.52- 3.67). There were no statistically significant associations between ADHD and socio-economic class, family size, birth order and ethnicity.
Conclusion: ADHD prevalence is low but within the range reported elsewhere. We recommended community awareness of the condition involving both parents and teachers. We also advocated treatment and support through school health program.

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