Prevalence and Predictors of Tobacco Use Among Adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria, 2021

  • Cancer
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Background: Accounting for more than 8 million deaths annually, most tobacco use starts by adolescence, causing dependence and prolonged use. Adolescent tobacco use monitoring is critical to tobacco-use control. We determined the prevalence and predictors of tobacco use among in-school adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a 2-stage cluster design to select 3,199 students from 23 schools in Ibadan. We collected data using a questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey Core Questionnaire Version 1.2. Key variables were tobacco use, tobacco cessation, second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure, and tobacco advertising exposure. We modeled a logistic regression for current tobacco use. We weighted all analyses accounting for complex survey design and differential non-response at school, class, and student levels.
Results: Current use of cigarettes, smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco (SLT) and any tobacco were reported by 1.4% (95% CI=0.8–2.3), 1.8% (95% CI=1.1–3.0), 1.1% (95% CI=0.6–1.9) and 2.0% (95% CI=1.3–2.0) of respondents respectively. Among smokers, 76.2% (95% CI=46.2–92.3) desired to stop. Among all respondents, 46.1% (95% CI=42.3–49.9) were exposed to SHS, and 57.8% (95% CI=53.4–62.1) of those that watched television/videos/movies noticed tobacco use. Predictors of current tobacco use were males (aOR=3.13; 95% CI=1.53–6.42), smoking friends (aOR=3.10; 95% CI=1.77–5.41), smoking classmates (aOR=3.12; 95% CI=1.15–8.49), cigarette access (aOR=6.65; 95% CI=2.55–17.33), perceived attractiveness of smokers (aOR=3.15; 95% CI=1.17–8.44), SHS exposure (aOR=2.93; 95% CI=1.07–8.03), and awareness of tobacco use on the internet (aOR=3.22; 95% CI=1.48–7.04).
Conclusions: Tobacco use was low but with significant exposure to SHS and pro-tobacco advertising. Predictors of current tobacco use were peer influence, access to cigarettes, tobacco use misperceptions, exposure to SHS and pro-tobacco advertising. We recommended an anti-tobacco campaign using a peer education strategy, and enforcement of comprehensive bans on pro-tobacco advertising and public smoking.

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