Re-occurrence of Cholera Outbreaks in Hoima District, Uganda; October 2015 to July 2016

  • Water or foodborne
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Background: Cholera is one of the major diarrheal diseases that remains a threat to public health contributing to over 28,000 deaths worldwide every year. In Uganda, Hoima district has experienced recurrent outbreaks despite the interventions in place. This poses a great burden on the district health system. We assessed factors influencing the re-occurrence of cholera outbreaks in Hoima district.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing records and reports from Hoima district Health Management Information System for the period of October 2015 to July 2016. We determined the trends of outbreaks and five key informants were interviewed to establish the factors influencing the re-occurrence of cholera outbreaks.
Results: Eight sporadic cholera outbreaks occurred between October 2015 to July 2016 in Hoima district with a total of 468 patients and 11 deaths. 9 villages were affected, with three villages experiencing the outbreaks concurrently in October. Kabwoya and Buseruka sub counties which are located at the shores of Lake Albert registered the highest numbers of patients at 251 and 147 respectively. The months of October and November 2015 registered the highest number of patients at 153 and 52 patients while January and February 2016 had 40 and 19 patients respectively. From the key informant interviews; open defecation, low latrine coverage, poor sanitation, high dropout of village health teams and hygiene promoters, high immigration levels in the district, inadequate capacity and resources to control the outbreaks were among the factors that contributed to the re-occurrence of cholera outbreaks.
Conclusion: There were eight sporadic cholera outbreaks between October 2015 and July 2016. Areas that registered highest number of patients were located at the shores of Lake Albert characterized by poor sanitation and open defecation. We recommended prioritization of prevention measures as an intervention to control the occurrence of cholera outbreaks.

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