Sequelae of COVID-19: Prevalence and associated factors in patients hospitalized at the Grand-Lomé Regional Hospital, Togo from 2020 to 2021

In August 2020, the World Health Organization announced the persistence of post-Covid-19 sequelae. In the Grand-Lomé region, the epicenter of the pandemic in Togo, no study on the post-Covid-19 sequelae has been carried out. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence and factors associated with post-Covid-19 sequelae from 2020 to 2021.

This was a cross-sectional analytical study of 1240 patients hospitalized at the Grand-Lomé Regional Hospital from March 6, 2020 to August 31, 2021 and cured for at least four weeks. As victims of sequelae any persons who presented persistent symptoms after cured. We have obtained informed consent from the respondent. Bivariate analysis was used to identify associated factors.

Out of 877 respondents, the male/female sex ratio was 1.49 and the median age was 43years IQR (32-56). Five hundred and eighty-three (68.8%) patients resided in the Golfe district. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco were reported respectively in 35.4% and 7.78%. The most frequent comorbidities were arterial hypertension (24.17%, 95% CI 21.41-27.17), obesity BMI>30 (12.62%, 95% CI 10.55-15.02) and diabetes (9.43%, 95% CI 7.65-11.59). The most common clinical signs were cough (48.11%), fever≥38⁰C (39.82%). The prevalence of sequelae was 54.5%, dominated by the feeling of shortness of breath 12.26%, persistent headaches 9.08% and anxiety 8.02%. Age over 50years (OR=1.64 95% CI [1.24-2.18] p˂0.001), disease severity (OR= 2.21 95% CI [1.30-3, 73] p˂0.001) and the presence of comorbidities (OR= 3.21; 95% CI [2.40-4.30] p˂0.001) were associated with sequelae.

This study shows that more than half of Covid-19 patients hospitalized in Grand-Lomé had sequelae affecting almost all body systems. The associated factors are age, clinical severity and comorbidities. It is important to organize the post-cure follow-up of patients with Covid-19 for the management of sequelae and comorbidities. A multivariate analysis would identify the risk factors.

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