Surveillance data Analysis of Suspected cases of Shigellosis- Burkina Faso, 2010 - 2018

  • Water or foodborne
  • Public health surveillance
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Shigellosis is the leading cause of bloody diarrhea in the world. An estimated 165 million people worldwide are affected each year and 99% of them occurs in low-income countries. Children under 5 are the most affected age group with 500,000 to 1 million deaths per year. In Burkina Faso, surveillance of shigellosis is done through the surveillance of patients having bloody diarrhea; it started since 1996. The data exists but is poorly analyzed. The objective of our study was to describe Burkina Faso suspected shigellosis cases from 2010 to 2018 by time, place and person.
We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on shigellosis secondary surveillance data in Burkina Faso from January 1st 2010 to December 31th, 2018. The population and the study sample were respectively, Burkina Faso population distributed in the 13 regions and the suspected cases of shigellosis recorded in two national databases. The study consisted of a literature review of these shigellosis databases. We described suspected cases of shigellosis ac- cording to time, place and person criteria and determined outbreaks periods by the CUSUM (C2) method. Analysis was performed with Excel 2016, Epi info 7.2 and Health Mapper 4.2 software.
A total of 23,638 suspected cases of shigellosis and 27 deaths were recorded, with a lethality of 0.11%.The median age of cases was 21 years (range: 0-94 years). Adults over 30 and children under 5 were more affected. The annual incidence decreased from 2010 (62 patients / 100,000 p-y) to 2018 (1 patient / 100,000 p-y). The four regions which recorded the most cases were the North with 4999 (21.15%), Upper Basins 4011 (16.97%), Cascades 3117 (13.19%) and South Central 3037 (12.85%) respectively. We observed that many cases appeared in August and September every year. There was no laboratory result.
This analysis showed that suspected cases of shigellosis were mostly in four regions of Burkina Faso. The study also detected periods of outbreaks and found that no suspected cases were confirmed in the laboratory. We recommend the introduction of sentinel surveillance that will include the biological diagnosis and the determination of an epidemic threshold of shigellosis in Burkina Faso.

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