Non-communicable disease training for public health workers in low- and middle-income countries: lessons learned from a pilot training in Tanzania
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Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. A lack of training and experience in NCDs among public health workers is evident in low- and middle- income countries.
Methods: We describe the design and outcomes of applied training in NCD epidemiology and control piloted in Tanzania that included a 2-week interactive course and a 6-month NCD field project. Trainees (n=14 initiated; n=13 completed) were epidemiology-trained Ministry of Health or hospital staff. We evaluated the training using Kirkpatrick's evaluation model for measuring reactions, learning, behavior and results using pre- and post-tests and closed-ended and open-ended questions.
Results: Significant improvements in knowledge and self-reported competencies were observed. Trainees reported applying competencies at work and supervisors reported improvements in trainees' performance. Six field projects were completed; one led to staffing changes and education materials for patients with diabetes and another to the initiation of an injury surveillance system. Workplace support and mentoring were factors that facilitated the completion of projects. Follow-up of participants was difficult, limiting our evaluation of the training's outcomes.
Conclusions: The applied NCD epidemiology and control training piloted in Tanzania was well received and showed improvements in knowledge, skill and self-efficacy and changes in workplace behavior and institutional and organizational changes. Further evaluations are needed to better understand the impact of similar NCD trainings and future trainers should ensure that trainees have mentoring and workplace support prior to participating in an applied NCD training.
Key words: Chronic disease, developing nations, non-communicable disease, public health worker, training